Sweet fruits are those in which sugars predominate and can be obtained either from woody crops (pome fruits and stone fruits) or from arable crops of the annual cycle: the so-called fruit-vegetables.
Fruit-vegetables are obtained from herbaceous species and also from some shrub species (blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, etc.). The cultivated fruits-vegetables are usually of annual cycle and must be planted every year, while the fruits of the forest sprout every year. Fruit-vegetables are usually nubile, fleshy and more versatile than fruits obtained from woody crops. They are fruits of faster growth and their periods of collection are ample. Some of them, like the tomato, is classified directly between the vegetables by lacking sweetness.
The most widespread fruit-vegetables in Spain are: Strawberry (with a production of almost 300,000 tons), melon (about 740,000 tons), and watermelon (about 940,000 tons), accounting for almost 40% of total fruit production. Sweet fruit although they are classified among the vegetables many times.
Nugget fruits are very sensitive to climatic changes and therefore crops vary greatly from year to year. If you do not take into account the fruits – he practices, they represent 30% of the production of sweet fruit. The two main productions of pome fruit worldwide are pears (400,100 tonnes) and apples (475,000 tonnes, if apples are included for cider). The two most widespread apple varieties in the world are golden and gala.
In our country, other productions such as table grapes, medlars or quinces are gaining ground. In Spain, table grapes, or grapes for fresh consumption, have a different cultivation technique than grapes for winemaking. Table-specific varieties (aledo, italy, rosetti, ohanes, napoleon, seedless, cardinal, etc.) are usually grown on vines armed with grapevines or tiled to avoid contact with the soil. In some varieties bunches are usually protected with bags, both to avoid any possible unwanted fertilization, and to protect the fruit.
Loquats are technically pome fruit, although they have one or more seeds with a similar appearance to the almonds of the stone fruits. Another minor crop is the loquat, which is concentrated in the east of the country. This crop, which is also growing, now occupies 1,800 hectares in Spain and has a recognized quality mark that protects production: the Denomination of Protected Origin Nísperos de Callosa d’en Sarrià. In the loquat line is khaki, a minority but growing production. In 2014, the area of persimmon grew by 9% and stood at 13,370 hectares.
In addition to these major productions, in Spain there are also other productions of pepita such as quince, which are dedicated about 1,500 hectares and whose production is mainly intended for the industry for the preparation of quince meat and marmalade.
In relation to the foreign trade of these fruits, exports of pear and apple increased in 2014, unlike in the previous year. In terms of imports, apple is one of the fruits we buy the most outside, although in 2014 imports were reduced, as already happened in 2013, to below 200,000 tonnes. International pear purchases also declined to just 35,000 tonnes.
The production of fruit of bone represents around 30% of the national harvest of sweet fruits and as in the case of pips, its annual productivity varies a lot depending on the climatology, especially in the earliest productions. Peaches and nectarines have diversified their production periods, staggering varieties, from April to November. Apricots, on the other hand, have a shorter commercial period, from April to mid-summer, while cherries also run from April to October. In general they are fruits that get good quotes if they are not spoiled by the rains. The apricot harvest is about 138,000 tons, cherry and cherry is 108,000 tons, peach is 1,057,000 tons, plum is 231,700 tons (26%) and nectarine is 646,600 tons (17% plus). With regard to foreign trade in 2014, exports of apricots, peaches, nectarines and plums increased, just the opposite of the previous year. The export of nectarine is the most important in volume (467,000 tons in 2014) and has been increasing for several years.
Other sweet fruits: With the rest of the sweet fruit can form a heterogeneous set that could be called “fleshy fruits” and they represent around 10% of the final production. In Spain, the main productions are